In no particular order

1. Nietzsche-Beyond Good and Evil
2. Charles Darwin- The Origin of the Species
3. Karl Marx- Das Kapital
4. Richard Wagner- the Ring Cycle
5. James Frazer- The Golden Bough
6. Leo Tolstoy- War and Peace
7. Sigmund Freud- The Interpretation of Dreams
8. Marcel Proust- Remembrance of Things Past

Many of these can be seen as repudiations on religion, on that inherent natural order of God and subjects. Many of these are direct descendants of the Enlightenment and Democracy, natural extensions of I am free, I am Man, I am the Master of my own Fate, I make my own Moral universe, type of reasoning.

It is also notable that this apparent devaluation of religion was coupled with a great enhancement in the attraction of nationalism, in the understanding that nations were at the heart of identity. Religion wanes (not really, but for the purposes of this discussion) and so nationalism strengthens. People need to identify with something is my simplistic conclusion. Hence, the inclusion of Wagner in this list; Wagner stokes the flames of German nationalism. Remember, Germany was not even a country until the 1870s, just a collection of individual states (Bohemia, Saxony, etc…) not unlike Italy at the time. Nietzsche and Wagner were contemporaries; God is dead, Nation is king. Once again, rather simplistic.

An interesting parallel to this was the seemingly contradictory notion that missionary movements were at their zenith in places like Africa and Asia, and not coincidentally, so was European colonialism. Unfortunately, the two seem to go hand in hand for stretches of human history.

By Michael Gallagher

My name is Michael Sean Gallagher. I am a Lecturer in Digital Education at the Centre for Research in Digital Education at the University of Edinburgh. I am Co-Founder and Director of Panoply Digital, a consultancy dedicated to ICT and mobile for development (M4D); we have worked with USAID, GSMA, UN Habitat, Cambridge University and more on education and development projects. I was a researcher on the Near Futures Teaching project, a project that explores how teaching at The University of Edinburgh unfold over the coming decades, as technology, social trends, patterns of mobility, new methods and new media continue to shift what it means to be at university. Previously, I was the Research Associate on the NERC, ESRC, and AHRC Global Challenges Research Fund sponsored GCRF Research for Emergency Aftershock Forecasting (REAR) project. I was an Assistant Professor at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (한국외국어대학교) in Seoul, Korea. I have also completed a doctorate at University College London (formerly the independent Institute of Education, University of London) on mobile learning in the humanities in Korea.

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